Bible apologetics and education

The supposition that the author was one and the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus’ ministry. Two other passages are advanced as evidence of the same – But both falter under close scrutiny. Neither of these passages, therefore, persuades many Johannine scholars that the author claims eyewitness status. There is a case to be made that John, the son of Zebedee, had already died long before the Gospel of John came to be written. It is worth noting for its own sake, even though the “beloved disciple” need not be identified with John, the son of Zebedee. In his ninth century Chronicle in the codex Coislinianus, George Hartolos says, “[John] was worth of martyrdom. Papias in the second book says that John the divine and James his brother were killed by Jews.

List of Gospels

It’s a most basic set of questions to ask: Who wrote the Gospels? When were they written? And generally, is there any reason to suspect that they are full of fabrications?

What others are saying about The Missing Gospels “Darrell Bock has written a timely and valuable study for anyone curious about the question of lost or missing gospels.

Ehrman has established himself as one of the foremost voices in the historical Jesus debates. In this, the latest of a long list of influential books, he combines his ideas about Jesus with cutting-edge research from cognitive psychology, cultural anthropology, and sociology. He states that his intent is to provide complicated academic theory, dating back a century, in a form which is both interesting and accessible to general audiences. He more than succeeds in achieving his goal. Was Jesus actually more zealot than apocalyptic prophet?

Did Jesus have siblings? Are traditional gospel teachings based on distorted memories? How reliable is eyewitness testimony? Who were the real authors of the canonical gospels? What impact does collective Christian memory have on the world we live in today? Ehrman offers more insight and information than answers when tackling these questions. By doing so, he is positioning this book to bring an entirely new audience to a thoughtful examination of what has previously been accepted as the truth about Jesus.

5 Powerful Reasons Why The Gospels Are Reliable Sources

Relationships and Dating in the Bible Does the Bible say anything about dating? No, but it does describe relationships. If “dating” is defined as two single friends of the opposite sex doing things together for fun without any attraction or romantic desire or intimacy involved at all, there is no issue to discuss regarding dating. They are spending time as friends.

Printed from Dates and Authorship of the Gospels. In French. It’s a most basic set of questions to ask: Who wrote the Gospels?

Scripture Verses 2 Timothy 3: The Gospel parallels provided here also include the Gospel of John for comparison. These first three books have been called the synoptic Gospels since the 18th century and are so called because they give similar accounts of the ministry of Jesus. The term is also applied to apocryphal works of the 2nd century e. The Gospel according to John has a number of points of contact with the three synoptic Gospels but differs considerably from them in content and therefore not all Gospel synopses display the book of John.

The fourth canonical gospel of John differs significantly from the synoptics in terms of Christology, which is the field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ, in particular, how the divine and human are related in his person. Christology is generally less concerned with the details of Jesus’ life than it is with how the human and divine co-exist in one person. The synoptic gospels often recount the same stories about Jesus, though sometimes with different and more or less detail, but mostly following the same sequence and to a large extent using the same words.

The question of the relationship between the three is called the synoptic problem. This problem concerns the literary relationships between and among the first three canonical gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke collectively known as the synoptic Gospels. Similarity in word choices and event placement shows an interrelationship. The synoptic problem concerns how this interrelation came to pass and what the nature of this interrelationship is.

Are the New Testament Gospels Reliable

If it can be established that the gospels were written early, say before the year A. If they were written by the disciples, then their reliability, authenticity, and accuracy are better substantiated. Also, if they were written early, this would mean that there would not have been enough time for myth to creep into the gospel accounts since it was the eyewitnesses to Christ’s life that wrote them.

Furthermore, those who were alive at the time of the events could have countered the gospel accounts; and since we have no contradictory writings to the gospels, their early authorship as well as apostolic authorship becomes even more critical. Destruction of the temple in A. This is significant because Jesus had prophesied concerning the temple when He said “As for these things which you are looking at, the days will come in which there will not be left one stone upon another which will not be torn down.

Dating the gospels is very important. If it can be established that the gospels were written early, say before the year A.D. 70, then we would have good reason for believing that they were written by the disciples of Jesus himself. If they were written by the disciples, then their reliability.

Do you even know every challenge that might be offered? Historical challenges are often complicated, nuanced and detailed, and while it is nearly impossible to remember all the data related to every objection, there are four overarching principles of witness reliability appropriate to the task. I used this template to evaluate the Gospels when I was an unbelieving skeptic, and these four principles will help you assess any challenge offered against the Gospel accounts: Make Sure the Witnesses Were Present in the First Place There are times in cold case investigations when a witness emerges with a story, even though he or she was not involved in the case when it occurred.

When it comes to the Gospel accounts, we have to ask a similar question: Were the gospels written early enough to have been written by true eyewitnesses? If the accounts were written and circulated early , the possibility of an errant or deceptive inclusion is greatly reduced. Early authorship allows the accounts to be fact-checked by those who were present and could expose the accounts as a lie. The gospels are the earliest ancient accounts describing the life of Jesus and the historical events surrounding His life.

This must be considered when evaluating the gospels against any ancient account that follows them. Try to Find Some Corroboration for the Claims of the Witnesses Jurors are encouraged to evaluate witnesses in a trial on the basis of any evidence offered to verify or corroborate their testimony. Sometimes witness testimony can be corroborated with physical evidence, sometimes with the direct testimony of another witness.

School of Theology and Ministry

October 16, By James Bishop One of the most common objections to Christianity is that Gospels are not reliable or trustworthy sources for Jesus. A variety of reasons are often given for this, including the religious bias of the authors and the decades in between the events and the written accounts of the life of Jesus. Perhaps the leading, and by far most popular, skeptic and critic when it comes to contemporary Christianity is the agnostic Bart Ehrman.

Yet the Jesus Seminar’s passing didn’t put an end to imaginative speculation about Jesus and the gospels. The most recent version of such comes from Dan Brown’s bestselling book, and soon to be hit movie, The Da Vinci his credit, Brown doesn’t claim to have written non-fiction.

Part 2 of this article will discuss how the timing of the Lord’s death and resurrection had been foreshadowed in the Passover ceremony, which becomes a doctrinal argument in the discussion. Pratt has a Ph. He is the father of five children and is Sunday School president in his Kaysville, Utah, ward. Notes It should be noted that the conclusions in this article are based on scriptures, historical sources, and astronomy, in all of which there are elements of uncertainty.

The interpretation of scripture as it relates to history is often very difficult, history itself is by nature inexact, and astronomical calculations can only be accurate to within certain tolerances. Moreover, judging the relative importance of data is a subjective enterprise, especially when conflicting evidence comes from different fields. However, the consistency discovered in the scriptures is thought to be of interest to Latter-day Saints.

Two excellent summaries of this subject are: Princeton University Press,

Synoptic Gospel Parallels

The siglum Q derives from the German word “Quelle,” which means “Source. Although the temptation story and the healing of the centurion’s son are usually ascribed to Q, the majority of the material consists of sayings. Some scholars have observed that the Gospel of Thomas and the Q material, as contrasted with the four canonical gospels, are similar in their emphasis on the sayings of Jesus instead of the passion of Jesus.

Such a common order demands a theory that Q at some stage existed in written form.

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Vintage Books, New York: The many documents mentioned by Dr. Pagels in this introduction are all in the Gnostic Society Library — we have added links to the specific documents where they are first mentioned in the text. Rumors obscured the circumstances of this find–perhaps because the discovery was accidental, and its sale on the black market illegal. For years even the identity of the discoverer remained unknown. Originally natural, some of these caves were cut and painted and used as grave sites as early as the sixth dynasty, some 4, years ago.

Gospels, dating through the combined external and internal evidence

Blomberg, The Case for Christ 26 Because of the lack of original texts, it has been very difficult to date the canonical gospels as to when they were written or even when they first emerge in the historical record, as these two dates may differ. According to this scholarship, the gospels must have been written after the devastation because they refer to it. However, conservative believers maintain the early dates and assert that the destruction of the temple and Judea mentioned in the gospels constitutes “prophecy,” demonstrating Jesus’s divine powers.

What are the most accurate dates for the canonical gospels in the New Testament as we have them? Are these texts really the faithful accounts of eyewitnesses written shortly after Jesus’s advent? Or does the evidence point to the gospels as anonymous compositions dating to the late second century?

James-Translation and Notes Oxford: Clarendon Press, Introduction The older testimonies about this book have been given already. I now present the three principal forms of it, as given by Tischendorf: The few Greek manuscripts are all late. The earliest authorities are a much abbreviated Syriac version of which the manuscript is of the sixth century, and a Latin palimpsest at Vienna of the fifth or sixth century, which has never been deciphered in full.

The Latin version translated here is found in more manuscripts than the Greek; none of them, I think, is earlier than the thirteenth century.

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Are the New Testament Gospels Reliable? Part 1 of series: Part 11 of series:

Perhaps the leading, and by far most popular, skeptic and critic when it comes to contemporary Christianity is the agnostic Bart Ehrman. However, Ehrman still affirms the historical nature of the gospels, writing that “If historians want to know what Jesus said and did they are more or less constrained to use the New Testament Gospels as their principal sources.

Retrieved February 8, Andrew in the leading role. What they were is uncertain. Fabricius supposes that Merinthus and Cerinthus are the same person and that Cerinthus was changed into Merinthus by the way of banter or reproach. Although Epiphanius makes them into two different persons, yet in the heresy of the Cerinthians, he professes himself uncertain. Retrieved June 18, Archived from the original PDF on March 5, Retrieved June 11,

When were the gospels written and by whom

Retrieved February 8, Andrew in the leading role. What they were is uncertain. Fabricius supposes that Merinthus and Cerinthus are the same person and that Cerinthus was changed into Merinthus by the way of banter or reproach. Although Epiphanius makes them into two different persons, yet in the heresy of the Cerinthians, he professes himself uncertain.

Gospel originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four canonical gospels — Matthew, Mark, Luke and John — were written between AD 70 and , and are the main source of information on the life of Jesus. All four are anonymous (the modern names were added in the 2nd century), and none were.

Dar-al-Jil, , p. Islamic leaders go to extraordinary means to hide the Gospel of Jesus from Muslims. Just as Satan wails at a crucifix at an exorcism – the Islamic cult member normally wails at the sight of the Christian Bible. A false prophet can always be recognized, because he attacks the true prophet. A false Bible can be recognized, because it contradicts the true Bible. Islam goes one step further.

First Islam tries to gain acceptance by attesting to the truth and validity of both the Christian and Jewish holy books. But, it then clearly steps out of the light, exposing itself to its diabolical agenda, by contradicting and falsifying the facts and teachings in both these books. Also, question the “dark side” of a Religion such as Islam that requires you to only recite salah and prayers like the Namaz, in a language Arabic you do not understand. All Muslims, Arab and non-Arab alike, are obliged to pray in Arabic.

Even if you do not understand a single word. Muslims are also required to read the Qur’an in Arabic, in order to attain any graces at all from Allah. It is not necessary that the person can understand even a word of what he is reading. This is what the warning means that Jesus left us with, when he said; “insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

Re-Dating the Gospels – Phil Fernandes, PhD


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